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Last Update: 19.11.2020

The working group Tools is focused on the properties and the constructive design of forming tools in the CRC/TCRC 73. The close cooperation of all project areas ensures on the one hand a functional implementation of the newly developed processes for tool manufacturing, on the other hand new production technologies in sheet bulk metal forming can be quickly implemented and tested with specially manufactured tools. One focus of the working group is the implementation and testing of adapted tool surfaces to influence friction during the forming process (Tailored Surfaces).


In the following, some examples of collaborative work are presented, which were carried out in the context of the working group Tools:

Participating subprojects: A7, B2, B5, B7, C2 - 2019

Analysis of structured tool surfaces and the influence on tool wear

The investigations deal with the influence of deterministic surface structures on the tribological properties of forming tools and their wear under process load. The wear development of functional surface structures is investigated both simulatively and experimentally. It is shown that the surface structures used offer potential for the optimization of SBMF processes with respect to tribological properties as well as resistance.



Participating subprojects: A1, B3 - 2019

Customized tool surfaces in a flexible rolling process

The use of process-adapted semi-finished products in solid sheet metal forming processes leads to several advantages with regard to downstream forming processes. A defined material pre-distribution allows both a more resource-efficient use of the material and an increase in component quality by means of local pre-hardening. The forming technology production of rotationally symmetrical, process-adapted semi-finished products of variable sheet thickness is made possible by a flexible rolling process, which generates a material flow into defined tool cavities by translatory movement of two forming rolls. Depending on the thickening volume and the homogeneity of the material predistribution, a higher form filling of functional elements can be achieved in subsequent forming stages, such as a combined deep-drawing and upsetting process. Due to the tribological properties between the semi-finished product and the rolling table, a homogeneous material predistribution cannot always be achieved, depending on the geometry and process control strategy. The use of tailored tool surfaces in the forming process is intended to demonstrate a possibility to increase the material flow control in order to provide a higher material volume in the thickening area. The subsequent use of the rolled tailored blanks in a combined deep-drawing and upsetting process will provide insights into the potential for the use of tailored surfaces in the manufacture of semi-finished products and help to develop an understanding of the process for industrial use.


Participating subprojects: A4, B2, B5 – 2017

Improvement strategies for the formfilling in incremental gear forming processes

Incremental Sheet-Bulk Metal Forming offers an innovative and flexible approach for the manufacturing of gears. An insufficient formfilling of the generated gearing, especially of the first tooth formed, is observed. Aiming for a formfilling improvement of the first tooth element, three influencing factors were investigated. First, the prevailing friction is analyzed and a possibility for its adjustment is offered by a tailored adaption of the tool surface topographies. These were manufactured by micromilling, EDM and polishing processes and partially covered by CrAlN PVD-coatings. Based on ring-compression tests, which were performed to determine the resulting friction conditions, the analyzed topographies were transferred onto real tool surfaces and used in the incremental gear forming process. Second, the influence on the formfilling of the blank cutting process and the resulting sheet edge properties were investigated. The third aspect to enhance the formfilling of the gear elements was the modification of the process strategy of the incremental forming process. Due to different conditions for the initial and the following indentations, a preforming operation was investigated in order to realize a similar material flow for all indentations. With the combination of the best parameters regarding the tool surface, the blank cutting process and the forming strategy, an improvement of the formfilling of the first formed gear element by up to 33% and for the following gears by up to 13% was achieved.


Participating subprojects: A4, B2, B5 – 2016

Wear behavior of tribologically optimized tool surfaces for incremental forming processes

The mechanical wear behavior of forming tools is the limiting factor during an incremental gear-forming process. These forming tools with a simple shaped geometry are exposed to high forming forces. Additionally, the necessary workpiece chambering, which is characteristic for this incremental process, restricts the dimensioning of the tools. Thereby, the geometrical design of the forming tools is limited which leads to a decreased life time. Functional structures on the tool surfaces can influence the occurring loading and wear behavior by a reduction of the contact area, the supply of lubricant pockets, and by a controlled influence and adjustment of the occurring material flow. For the extension of the tool life time, different surface concepts and combinations with CrAlN PVD-coatings are investigated. To offer conditions with high loads, the investigations are focused on an incremental gear forming process with a forming tool consisting of a simple one-wedge forming tool.

The results show abrasive and adhesive wear characteristics, as well as outbreaks, and crack formations. The crack propagation on the flank leads to a chipping of the tool tip, hence limiting the tool life. Compared to the reference tool, a surface structure combined with a PVD-coating provides a significant increase of the tool life of 84%.



Head of Working Group




      • Schewe, M.; Wilbuer, H.; Menzel, A.: Simulation of wear and effective friction properties of microstructured surfaces . In: Wear, 464(2021), elsevier, pp. 203491
      • Wild, T.; Merklein, M.: Tool Sided Surface Modifications in the Industrial Environment. In: M. Merklein, A.E. Tekkaya, B.-A. Behrens (Edt.): Sheet Bulk Metal Forming, (2021), Springer Nature Switzerland AG, pp. 477-492
      • Platt, T.; Biermann, D.: Functionalization of Tool Topographies for Material Flow Control and Tool Life Optimization in Hot Sheet-Bulk Metal Forming – A Concept Study. In: M. Merklein, A.E. Tekkaya, B.-A. Behrens (Edt.): Sheet Bulk Metal Forming, (2021), Springer Nature Switzerland AG, pp. 0
      • Meijer, A.; Biermann, D.: Machining of Molds with Filigree Structures for Sheet-Bulk Metal Forming. In: M. Merklein, A.E. Tekkaya, B.-A. Behrens (Edt.): Sheet Bulk Metal Forming - Research Results of the TCRC73, (2021), Springer Nature Switzerland AG, pp. 141-171
      • Wernicke, S.; Hahn, M.; Detzel, A.; Tillmann, W.; Stangier, D.; Lopes Dias, N. F.; Tekkaya, A.: Force Reduction by Electrical Assistance in Incremental Sheet-Bulk Metal Forming of Gears. In: Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 296(2021), Elsevier, pp. 117194
      • Platt, T.; Meijer, A.; Merhofe, T.; Biermann, D.: Simulation-Based and Experimental Investigation of Micro End Mills with Wiper Geometry. In: Micromachines (Edt.): Micro-Manufacturing and Applications: Advanced Micro Processing Technology, Devices and Equipment, Volume II, 12(2021)5, pp. 496
      • Wernicke, S.: Inkrementelle Blechmassivumformung belastungsangepasster Funktionsbauteile. In: Prof. Dr.-Ing. M. Kleiner (Edt.): Dissertation an der Fakultät Maschinenbau der Technischen Universität Dortmund, Dortmunder Umformtechnik, ISBN 978-3-8440-7980-7, 112(2021), Düren: Shaker Verlag, pp. 196
      • Wild, T.; Platt, T.; Biermann, D.; Merklein, M.: Analysis of the Influence of Surface Modifications on the Fatigue Behavior of Hot Work Tool Steel Components. In: Materials, 14(2021)23, pp. 1-15
      • Meijer, A.; Merhofe, T.; Platt, T.; Biermann, D.: Algorithmen-basierte Freiformflächenstrukturierung/Generation of NC programs for the micromilling structuring of free-form surfaces – Algorithm-based free-form surface structuring. In: wt Werkstattstechnik online (Edt.): 111(2021), pp. 797–802


      • Henneberg, J.; Merklein, M.: Investigation on extrusion processes in sheet-bulk metal forming from coil. In: CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology, (2020), accepted
      • Wernicke, S.; Hahn, M.; Tekkaya, A.; Gerstein, G.; Nürnberger, F.: Strain path dependency in incremental sheet-bulk metal forming. In: International Journal of Material Forming, (2020), DOI: 10.1007/s12289-020-01537-0, published
      • Weikert, T.; Tremmel, S.; Stangier, D.; Tillmann, W.; Krebs, E.; Biermann, D.: Tribological Studies on Multi-Coated Forming Tools. In: Journal of Manufacturing Processes, 49(2020), pp. 141-152
      • Wild, T.; Merklein, M.: Analyse des tribologischen Einsatzverhaltens von modifizierten Werkzeugoberflächen. In: Bernd-Arno Behrens (Edt.): Aktuelle Entwicklungen im Bereich der Umformtechnik - 23. Umformtechnisches Kolloquium Hannover 04. und 05. März 2020, (2020), TEWISS, pp. 35-42
      • Behrens, B.; Meijer, A.; Stangier, D.; Hübner, S.; Biermann, D.; Tillmann, W.; Rosenbusch, D.; , .: Static and oscillation superimposed ring compression tests with structured and coated tools for Sheet-Bulk Metal Forming. In: Journal of Manufacturing Processes, 55(2020), pp. 78-86
      • Wild, T.; Bestenlehrer, M.; Merklein, M.: Analysis of the Modification of Tool Surfaces by Abrasive Blasting and Laser Polishing. In: Defect and Diffusion Forum, 404(2020), pp. 124-131
      • Henneberg, J.; Merklein, M.: Measures for controlling the material flow when extruding sheet-bulk metal forming parts from coil. In: Manufacturing Review, 7(2020)36, pp. 1-13
      • Platt, T.; Meijer, A.; Biermann, D.: Conduction-Based Thermally Assisted Micromilling Process for Cutting Difficult-to-Machine Materials. In: Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing (Edt.): Advanced Manufacturing and Machining Processes, 4(2020)2, pp. 34


      • Wernicke, S.; Sieczkarek, P.; Gies, S.; Tekkaya, A.: Verfahren und Vorrichtung zur Verdickung des Randes eines Blechkörpers. In: Europäische Patentschrift (Edt.): EP 3 323 527 B1, (2019), accepted
      • Clausmeyer, T.; Nürnberger, F.; Gutknecht, F.; Isik, K.; Besserer, H.; Gerstein, G.; Wernicke, S.; Schulte, R.; Tekkaya, A.; Merklein, M.; Maier, H.: Analyse und Modellierung von Schädigung und Versagen in der Blechmassivumformung. In: Merklein, M.; Behrens, B.-A.; Tekkaya, A. E. (Edt.): 4. Workshop Blechmassivumformung, (2019), Erlangen: FAU University Press, pp. 33-60
      • Wernicke, S.; Gies, S.; Tekkaya, A.: Manufacturing of Hybrid Gears by Incremental Sheet-Bulk Metal Forming. In: Procedia Manufacturing, 27(2019), ELSEVIER, pp. 152-157
      • Behrens, B.; Biermann, D.; Tillmann, W.; Krimm, R.; Meijer, A.; Schewe, M.; Stangier, D.; Commichau, O.; Müller, P.; Rosenbusch, D.; Menzel, A.: Untersuchungen strukturierter Werkzeugflächen und der Einfluss auf den Werkzeugverschleiß. In: 4. Industriekolloquium Blechmassivumformung 2019 – DFG Transregio 73, (2019), pp. 7-30
      • Vogel, M.; Schulte, R.; Freiburg, D.; Lechner, M.; Biermann, D.; Merklein, M.: Maßgeschneiderte Werkzeugoberflächen in einem flexibeln Walzprozess. In: M. Merklein, B.-A. Behrens, A. E. Tekkaya (Edt.): 4. Workshop Blechmassivumformung, (2019), FAU University Press, pp. 89-108
      • Pulvermetallurgie der Hartmetalle - Schlüsseltechnologie für die spanende Fertigung und ihre Anwendungsgebiete. In: Danninger, H.; Sigl, L.; Broeckmann, C. (Edt.): Pulvermetallurgie- Schlüsseltechnologie für innovative Systemlösungen, 35(2019)1, Heimdall Verlag, pp. 3-27
      • Schewe, M.; Menzel, A.: Aspects of the Particle Finite Element Method applied to contact problems. In: Proc. Appl. Math. Mech., 19(2019)1, Weinheim: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, pp. e201900403


      • Sieczkarek, P.; Wernicke, S.; Gies, S.; Tekkaya, A.: Inkrementelle Blechmassivumformung: Entwicklung einer neuen Fertigungstechnologie. In: wt Werkstattstechnik online, 108(2018), pp. 679-685
      • Sieczkarek, P.: Inkrementelle Blechmassivumformung. In: M. Kleiner (Edt.): Reihe: Dortmunder Umformtechnik, 99(2018), ISBN: 978-3-8440-6118-5: Shaker, published
      • Gutknecht, F.; Clausmeyer, T.; Wernicke, S.; Gies, S.; Tekkaya, A.: Vorstellung eines Lastpfadindikators für die Blechmassivumformung. In: 19. Simufact RoundTable, 17.05.2018 in Marbung, (2018), published
      • Meijer, A.; Krebs, E.; Wiederkehr, P.; Biermann, D.: Prediction of Feed-Rate Slowdowns in Precise Micromilling Processes. In: J. Manuf. Mater. Process, 2(2018)1, MPDI, pp. 1-14
      • Biermann, D.; , .; Ott: Präparation von Mikrofräswerkzeugen aus Vollhartmetall mit elastisch gebundenen Schleifkörpern. In: Jahrbuch Schleifen, Honen, Läppen und Polieren: Verfahren und Maschinen, 68(2018)1, Vulkan Verlag GmbH, pp. 80-98
      • Biermann, D.; , .; Krebs, E.; Michel, S.; Jaeger, J.: Neue Entwicklungen für den produktiven Einsatz von Hartmetallwerkzeugen in kleinsten Dimensionen. In: Danninger, H.; Sigl, L.; Broeckmann, C. (Edt.): Pulvermetallurgie - neue Herausforderungen und neue Wege, 34(2018)1, Heimdall Verlag, pp. 135-155
      • Schewe, M.; Menzel, A.: The Particle Finite Element Method for the modelling and simulation of solid body interactions. In: Proc. Appl. Math. Mech., 18(2018)1, Weinheim: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, pp. e201800110


      • Sieczkarek, P.; Wernicke, S.; Gies, S.; Tekkaya, A.: Incremental Sheet-Bulk Metal Forming – Overview on the development of a new forming technology. In: Proceedings of the 50 th ICFG Plenary Meeting, (2017), Shanghai, China, pp. 196-205
      • Sieczkarek, P.; Wernicke, S.; Gies, S.; Tekkaya, A.; Krebs, E.; Wiederkehr, P.; Biermann, D.; Tillmann, W.; Stangier, D.: Improvement strategies for the formfilling in incremental gear forming processes. In: Production Engineering – Research and Development, 11(2017), Springer, pp. 623-631
      • Tillmann, W.; Stangier, D.; Lopes-Dias, N.-F.; Biermann, D.; Krebs, E.: Adjustment of Friction by Duplex-Treated, Bionic Structures for Sheet-Bulk Metal Forming. In: Tribology International, 111(2017), pp. 9-17
      • Gerstein, G.; Isik, K.; Sieczkarek, P.; Ewerth, J.; Tekkaya, A.; Clausmeyer, T.; Nürnberger, F.: MICROSTRUCTURAL CHARACTERIZATION AND SIMULATION OF DAMAGE FOR GEARED SHEET COMPONENTS. In: Journal of Physics: Conference Series 36th IDDRG Conference - Materials Modelling and Testing for Sheet Metal Forming 2–6 July 2017, Munich, Germany, 896(2017), published
      • Berthelsen, R.; Wilbuer, H.; Menzel, A.: Computational modelling of wear and the effective frictional behaviour of elastoplastic tools. In: Proceedings of the 7th GACM Colloquium on Computational Mechanics, 7(2017), Institute for Structural Mechanics, University of Stuttgart,, pp. 786-789


      • Berthelsen, R.; Wilbuer, H.; Holtermann, R.; Menzel, A.: Computational modelling of wear – application to structured surfaces of elastoplastic tools. In: GAMM-Mitt., 39(2016)2, Weinheim: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, pp. 210-228



        • 20.02.2019: Schewe, M.; Menzel, A.: Aspekte der Partikel Finite Elemente Methode angewendet auf Kontaktprobleme, 90th GAMM Annual Meething, Wien
        • 10.04.2019: Freiburg, D.: Oberflächenstrukturen in der spanenden Fertigung, DGM Fortbildungsseminar Moderne Hochleistungswerkstoffe spanend bearbeiten, Dortmund
        • 15.05.2019: , .: Mikrozerspanung gehärteter Schnellarbeitsstähle , 11. Tooling Konferenz, Aachen


        • 08.02.2018: Krebs, E.: Simulationsgestützte Prozessanalyse und –vorhersage bei der Mikrofräsbearbeitung, Dortmund
        • 21.03.2018: Schewe, M.; Menzel, A.: Die Partikel-Finite-Elemente-Methode für die Modellierung und Simulation von Festkörper Interaktionen, 89th GAMM Annual Meething, München
        • 24.08.2018: , .: Mikrobearbeitung - Von der Simulation des Materialabtrages bis zur intelligenten Fabrik , Sino Summer School, ISF, Dortmund
        • 17.09.2018: Freiburg, D.: Simulationsbasierte Werkzeugentwicklung zur Oberflächenstrukturierung von Werkzeugen der Blechmassivumformung, Metal Forming, Toyohashi, Japan
        • 28.09.2018: Wiederkehr, P.: Mikrobearbeitung bionischer Oberflächenstrukturen zur tribologischen Optimierung von Umfromprozessen, 2. Sino Symposium, Bochum
        • 28.11.2018: , .: Prozessauslegung zur Strukturierung von Freiformflächen durch Replikation und Verzerrung von Sektionen eines NC Programmes, Euspen - SIG: Structured & Freeform Surfaces, Paris


        • 26.10.2016: Menzel, A.: Anwendung eines numerischen Verschleiß Modells auf strukturierte Oberflächen, 29th Nordic Seminar on Computational Mechanics, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg