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B5 - Bionic Thin Layers (funding period 2)



Application of nanostructured bionic thin layers to enhance the wear and friction behavior of forming tools by thin-walled sheet forming

Project Status: finished

Last Update: 23.01.2017



Members


Objective of the project:

The main objective for project B5 is to improve the sheet-bulk metal forming process for the manufacturing of geometrically complex functional components and to enhance the lifetime of the tools. In order to reach this objective, two coating-based surface modifications are carried out. Attempts are made to transmit the good tribological behavior of bionic models, resulting from a reduction of the contact area, to the surface of the tool, by means of topography-replication. In order to protect the bionic structure and to increase the performance of the systems, these microscopic, filigree structures are to be coated accurately with ternary and quaternary hard material coatings, deposited by using a physical vapor deposition (PVD) process. Therefore, this work investigates the interdependency between the coating- and structure-combinations, as well as on their effect on the tribological behavior and the wear resistance of the modified tool-surface.

Funding period 1:

During the first funding period, bionic animal structures with concave, convex, and waved textures were characterized regarding their tribo-mechanical behavior. For this purpose, the examined structures were manufactured in cooperation with sub-project B2, applying milling-technology. To protect these filigree structures, three chromium-based, ceramic PVD-coating-systems (CrAlN, CrCN and Cr2AlC) were deposited as monolayers and as multilayer systems (ceramics with Cr-interlayers) onto the structured surfaces.

 

 

 

Figure 1: Analysis and transmission of bionic animal structures on functional surfaces

The results of the first period show that initial coating-structure-combinations could be successfully transmitted onto sheet-bulk metal forming tools (A4), thus reducing process forces by approximately 20% and increasing the bearing capacity of the surface of the tool . Additionally, it could be shown that pre-treating the substrate material (plasma nitriding) significantly increased the capability of the complete system. Moreover, for temperature measurements based on the Seebeck effect, sensor coatings (NiCr), could be deposited in a laboratory scale with PVD-technologies. In the medium term, these sensors are going to be integrated in multilayered thin films, in order to be able to intervene in the process control in-situ.

 

 

Figure 2: Structuring of tools for sheet-bulk metal forming processes

Funding period 2:

Based on the existing coating-structure-systems, the spectrum of bionic structures is extended, using models from using botanical models the plant kingdom, and by additionally conducting a systematic analysis of possible scaling effects on the existing animal structures in the second funding period. Furthermore, to extend the already realized investigations, tribological analyses will be conducted with a lubricant instead of the “dry” experiments, which were used before. This enables to analyze the effect of the geometry of the structure in combination with an intermediary medium onto the friction- and wear-behavior. This research aims to create adequate, bionic surface textures with low friction and wear, which allow a selective, position-dependent change of the lubricant concentration by a varying the contact angle (hydrophobic behavior). This enhances the quality of the work piece as well as the endurance of the demonstrators used and will later be transmitted to local specific demands of real forming tools.

 

Figure 3: Picture of the vegetal bionic surface of Euphorbia Atropurpurea

Due to the good tribo-mechanical properties of CrAlN PVD-coatings, the coating system, which was developed in the first funding period, will be adjusted by adding carbon. It is expected that the quaternary coating-system CrAlCN will improve the wear-protection and optimize the friction behavior of the coating because of an advanced carbon-nitrogen-ratio. Additionally, a thorough understanding for the interdependency between the bionically-structured tools and its tribological counterparts is expected from the various examinations of different coating-structure-combinations.

 


Working Groups


Publications

    2016

    • Löffler, M.; Andreas, K.; Engel, U.; Weikert, T.; Tremmel, S.; Wartzack, S.; Stangier, D.; Tillmann, W.; Merklein, M.: Surface modifications for adaption of tribological conditions in sheet-bulk metal forming processes. In: Bobzin, K.; Bouzakis, K.-D.; Denkena, B.; Maier, H.J.; Merklein, M. (Edt.): Proceedings THE "A" Coatings, (2016), PZH Verlag, pp. 13-20
    • Denkena, B.; Grove, T.; Lucas, H.; Tillmann, W.; Stangier, D.: Influence of PVD-coating manufacturing steps on the subsurface integrity of hardened and soft AISI M3:2 high speed steel. In: Bobzin, K.; Bouzakis, K.-D.; Denkena, B.; Maier, H.J.; Merklein, M. (Edt.): Proceedings THE "A" Coatings, (2016), PZH Verlag, pp. 23-30
    • Tillmann, W.; Stangier, D.; Schröder, P.: Investigation and Optimization of the tribo-mechanical Properties of CrAlCN Coatings using Design of Experiments. In: Surface and Coatings Technology, (2016), accepted
    • Tillmann, W.; Stangier, D.; Denkena, B.; Grove, T.; Lucas, H.: Influence of PVD-coating technology and pretreatments on residual stresses for sheet-bulk metal forming tools. In: Special Issue: Production Engineering, 10(2016)1, Springer, pp. 17-24
    • Tillmann, W.; Stangier, D.; Laemmerhirt, I.-A.; Biermann, D.; Freiburg, D.: Investigation of the tribological properties of high-feed milled structures and Cr-based hard PVD-coatings. In: Vacuum, 131(2016), pp. 5-13
    • Sieczkarek, P.; Wernicke, S.; Gies, S.; Tekkaya, A.; Krebs, E.; Wiederkehr, P.; Biermann, D.; Tillmann, W.; Stangier, D.: Wear Behavior of Tribologically Optimized Tool Surfaces for Incremental Forming Processes. In: Tribology International, 104(2016), pp. 64 - 72

    2015

    • Freiburg, D.; Biermann, D.; Hense, R.; Tillmann, W.; Stangier, D.: Influence of Surface Modifications on Friction, Using High-Feed Milling and Wear Resistant PVD-Coating for Sheet-Metal Forming Tools. In: Key Engineering Materials, 639(2015), pp. 275-282
    • Behrens, B.; Hübner, S.; Vucetic, M.; Koch, S.; Denkena, B.; Grove, T.; Lucas, H.; Tillmann, W.; Stangier, D.; Hausotte, T.; Loderer, A.: Prozessauslegung und Untersuchung von geschliffenen und CrAlN / CrAlCN-beschichteten Werkzeugoberflächen mittels schwingungsüberlagertem Flachstauchversuch für die Blechmassivumformung. In: Tekkaya, A. E.; Liewald, M.; Merklein, M.; Behrens, B.-A (Edt.): Tagungsband zum 18. Workshop Simulation in der Umformtechnik & 3. Industriekolloquium Blechmassivumformung 2015 - DFG Transregio 73, (2015), Aachen: Shaker Verlag, pp. 173 - 192
    • Löffler, M.; Freiburg, D.; Gröbel, D.; Loderer, A.; Matthias, S.; Stangier, D.; Weikert, T.: Untersuchung von Tailored Surfaces hinsichtlich ihres tribologischen Einflusses auf Prozesse der Blechmassivumformung. In: Tekkaya, A. E.; Liewald, M.; Merklein, M.; Behrens, B.-A (Edt.): Tagungsband zum 18. Workshop Simulation in der Umformtechnik & 3. Industriekolloquium Blechmassivumformung 2015 - DFG Transregio 73, (2015), Aachen: Shaker Verlag, pp. 131-146
    • Stangier, D.; Tillmann, W.; Krebs, E.; Biermann, D.; Hagen, L.: Wear Behavior of Bio-inspired and Technologically Structured HVOF Sprayed NiCrBSiFe Coatings. In: Surface and Coatings Technology, 280(2015), pp. 16-26
    • Tillmann, W.; Stangier, D.; Biermann, D.; Krebs, E.; Hagen, L.: Tribological investigation of bionic and micro-structured functional surfaces. In: Materialwissenschaft und Werkstofftechnik, 46(2015)11, pp. 1096-1104

    2013

    • Biermann, D.; Tillmann, W.; Herper, J.: New coating systems for temperature monitoring in turning processes. In: Surface & Coatings Technology, 215(2013), pp. 376-380
    • Tillmann, W.; Herper, J.; Laemmerhirt, I.-A.: Tribological comparison of different surface topographies coated with chromium aluminium nitride. In: Materialwissenschaft und Werkstofftechnik, 44(2013)8, pp. 730-735
    • Sieczkarek, P.; Kwiatkowski, L.; Tekkaya, A.; Krebs, E.; Tillmann, W.; Herper, J.: Innovative tools to improve incremental bulk forming processes. In: Key Engineering Materials , 554(2013), pp. 1490-1497
    • Herper, J.: Tribologische Untersuchungen von verschleiß- und reibungsarmen nanostrukturierten bionischen PVD-Beschichtungen. In: Wolfgang Tillmann (Edt.): Werkstofftechnologische Schriftenreihe, 8(2013), Dissertation: Vulkan Verlag, published

    Presentations

      2016

      • 31.03.2016: Denkena, B.; Grove, T.; Lucas, H.; Tillmann, W.; Stangier, D.: Influence of PVD-coating manufacturing steps on the subsurface integrity of hardened and soft AISI M3:2 high speed steel, Hannover
      • 26.04.2016: Tillmann, W.; Stangier, D.: Investigation and optimization of the tribo-mechanical properties of CrAlCN coatings using Desing of Experiments, San Diego, USA (ICMCTF)
      • 05.10.2016: Tillmann, W.; Stangier, D.: Influence of Carbon Content on the tribo-mechanical properties of CrAlCN Coatings Processed by Reactive Magnetron Sputtering, Bucaramanga Kolumbien

      2015

      • 17.03.2015: Biermann, D.; Freiburg, D.; Hense, R.; Tillmann, W.; Stangier, D.: Influence of surface modifications on friction, using high-feed milling and wear resistant PVD-coating for sheet-metal forming tools, Erlangen, Germany
      • 07.05.2015: Tillmann, W.: PVD- und thermische Spritzverfahren zur Optimierung des tribologischen Bauteilverhaltens, Bregenz
      • 11.05.2015: Tillmann, W.; Stangier, D.; Biermann, D.; , .; Krebs, E.: Surface modification by means of multilayer systems and micromilling technology, Long Beach USA

      2014

      • 08.05.2014: Tillmann, W.; Stangier, D.: Generation and Investigation of the Quaternary Coating System Chromium Aluminium Carbonnitride, Karlsruhe, European Symposium on Friction, Wear and Wear Protection

      2013

      • 23.04.2013: Sieczkarek, P.; Kwiatkowski, L.; Tekkaya, A.; Krebs, E.; , .; Tillmann, W.; Herper, J.: Innovative tools to improve incremental bulk forming processes, ESAFORM Conference 2013, Aveiro, Portugal
      • 17.07.2013: Tillmann, W.; Herper, J.: Biologically inspired nanostructured PVD-coating with improved tribological properties, Sino-German Symposium on Green Joining Material and Remanufacturing, Beijing
      • 13.11.2013: Koch, J.: Untersuchung von Tailored Surfaces für die Blechmassivumformung mittels angepasstem Ringstauchversuch, Erlangen