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A2 - Extrusion (funding period 2)

Manufaction of komplex extruded functional elements on sheets

Project Status: finished

Last Update: 23.01.2017


Objective of subproject A2 is a fundamental analysis for the manufacturing of complex functional parts out of sheet metal using cold forging operations. A special focus is set on short process chains. Within the current second project phase it is investigated, whether it is possible to transfer the existing knowledge on the forming of geometrically identical functional elements on element combinations of different shape and size. However, as the figure below illustrates, a different mold filling can be observed, which is directly related to the choice and placement of the cavities. Hence strategies have been developed and verified in further investigations to encounter this challenge. Using numerical and experimental investigations, the effectiveness of “Tailored Surfaces” and Tailored Blanks has been verified for the targeted control of the material flow.

A2 2014

Insufficient mold filling in a cold forging process by use of different functional elements

As a result of the typically high contact areas between the workpiece and the tool, the tool loads approach the current limits of conventional tool steels and reinforcement systems. Hence, tool stresses have been analyzed in order to identify the central influencing variables. The investigation shows that the resulting tool stresses are dependent on the geometrical form and their placement. Based on the results, the forming tools have been designed accordingly. Furthermore, in order to improve tool life and reliability, the process forces have to be made controllable by means of a further development of the tool technology. This is achieved by the use of alternative non-circular reinforcements, which enable the targeted adjustment of its properties in order to encounter the asymmetrical tool loads resulting from the forming of non-similar functional elements. Besides this, research is conducted on fatigue strength characterization of high strength tool steels in order to give precise predictions regarding the tolerable tool loads and therefore enable the full use of the potential of the tool steel in question.  


Working Groups



    • Gröbel, D.; Schulte, R.; Hildenbrand, P.; Lechner, M.; Engel, U.; Sieczkarek, P.; Wernicke, S.; , .; Tekkaya, A.; Behrens, B.; Hübner, S.; Vucetic, M.; Koch, S.; Merklein, M.: Manufacturing of functional elements by sheet-bulk metal forming processes. In: Production Engineering, 10(2016)1, pp. 63-80
    • Andreas, K.; Henneberg, J.; Koch, J.; Merklein, M.: Local adjustment of surface integrity of forming tools by adaptation of tool making process. In: Procedia CIRP, 45(2016), pp. 339-342


    • Löffler, M.; Gröbel, D.; Andreas, K.; Engel, U.; Merklein, M.: Analysis of Effectivness of Locally Adapted Tribological Conditions for Improving Product Quality in Sheet-Bulk Metal Forming. In: Applied Mechnics and Materials, 794(2015), pp. 81-88
    • Löffler, M.; Freiburg, D.; Gröbel, D.; Loderer, A.; Matthias, S.; Stangier, D.; Weikert, T.: Untersuchung von Tailored Surfaces hinsichtlich ihres tribologischen Einflusses auf Prozesse der Blechmassivumformung. In: Tekkaya, A. E.; Liewald, M.; Merklein, M.; Behrens, B.-A (Edt.): Tagungsband zum 18. Workshop Simulation in der Umformtechnik & 3. Industriekolloquium Blechmassivumformung 2015 - DFG Transregio 73, (2015), Aachen: Shaker Verlag, pp. 131-146


    • Merklein, M.; Schneider, T.; Gröbel, D.; Nürnberger, F.: Blechmassivumformung – vom Halbzeug zum Funktionsbauteil. In: Behrens, B. A. (Edt.): 21. Umformtechnisches Kolloquium Hannover, Industrie und Wissenschaft – Gemeinsam die Zukunft gestalten, (2014), pp. 265-280


    • Koch, J.; Merklein, M.: Cold forging of closely-tolerated functional components out of blanks – possibilities of the new process class sheet-bulk metal forming. In: Japan Society for Technology of Plasticity (Edt.): Proc. of the 6th JSTP International Seminar on Precision Forging, (2013), pp. 109-112



      • 26.02.2015: Löffler, M.: Untersuchung von Tailored Surfaces hinsichtlich ihres tribologischen Einflusses auf Prozesse der Blechmassivumformung, Dortmund
      • 18.06.2015: Gröbel, D.: Influence of tailored blanks on forming of cold forged functional elements in a sheet bulk metal forming process, Düsseldorf, Germany
      • 06.08.2015: Merklein, M.: Sheet-bulk metal forming – forming of functional components from sheet metals, Glasgow


      • 27.02.2014: Merklein, M.: Blechmassivumformung – vom Halbzeug zum Funktionsbauteil, Hannover
      • 28.02.2014: Merklein, M.: Blechmassivumformung: Umformtechnik mit Zukunft, Potsdam
      • 20.05.2014: Merklein, M.: Potenziale und Grenzen der Simulation in der Fertigungstechnik, Marburg
      • 20.10.2014: Gröbel, D.: Investigations and approaches on material flow of non-uniform arranged cavities in sheet bulk metal forming processes., Nagoya, Japan
      • 26.11.2014: Merklein, M.: Blechmassivumformung - Stand heute, Hagen


      • 13.11.2013: Koch, J.: Untersuchung von Tailored Surfaces für die Blechmassivumformung mittels angepasstem Ringstauchversuch, Erlangen