• Increase font size
  • Default font size
  • Decrease font size

B7 - Horizontal Loads

Determination of Horizontal Loads Embossing Sheet Metal to be Considered in Simulation

Project Status: Active

Last Update: 14.02.2019


In the subproject B7, the components used in the forming of asymmetric components occurring horizontal loads, their effects on machine deformation and component quality are investigated. In the first phase, the influence of horizontal loads on the process, the machine and the component quality was fundamentally investigated. By means of a process simulation in which occurring horizontal loads were taken into account, it was possible for the first time to predict the associated horizontal ram displacement. The negative influence of the ram displacement on the component quality can be predicted by means of these complex simulations, but cannot be avoided after all. In the second phase, an electromagnetic actuator system was therefore set up to avoid the displacement of the ram, which improves the component quality of asymmetrical components. The actuator system consists of four electromagnets integrated into a forming machine and enables horizontally directed magnetic forces to be applied to the press slide. The actuators are used to compensate the horizontal process forces and thus ensure component quality on the machine side for asymmetrical components.


In the third phase, on the basis of the knowledge gained so far and with the aid of the actuators designed in the second phase, further existing challenges in sheet metal forming (BMU) are addressed. The BMU enables the production of complex components with small secondary form elements such as gears as functional elements. To form gears on the circumference of a cup deep-drawn in the first step, the frame is compressed in a second step and a gear geometry is filled in the die. In the tool gap between the upsetting punch and the die, an undesired front ridge appears, the height of which depends, among other things, on the size of the tool gap. The front ridge must usually be removed in a downstream process. In the case of asymmetrical components, the horizontal load causes the upsetting punch to displace sideways, thus enlarging the tool gap and increasing burr formation. In B7, a new approach is being explored to avoid the burr causally by reducing the displacement of the upsetting die by means of electromagnetic actuators. By means of a horizontal movement of the upsetting punch relative to the die which rotates during the upsetting process, a temporary reduction of the tool gap on the entire circumference of the component is achieved, which is associated with a reduction of the burr formation. In addition to asymmetrical components, the principle can also be applied to symmetrical components.

Another challenge is the high stress on the tools during forming and the associated wear. Therefore, one of the objectives of B7 is to reduce tool wear by means of real BMU processes. For the first time, the wear is characterized during the production of a large number of components in cooperation with metrological projects in the research network in a process-accompanying manner. The approach pursued in B7 to reduce wear is the application of horizontal movements by means of electromagnetic actuators during production trials. In cooperation with subprojects from the research association, coatings and structures of the tool surface are further investigated with regard to the friction and thus wear-reducing effect as well as their resistance to wear in a BMU process.

Working Groups



    • Krimm, R.; Behrens, B.: Electromagnetic System to Control the Accuracy of Ram Travel at the Presence of Horizontal Process Forces. In: Advanced Materials Research, (2017), published