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Tools (funding period 2)

Last Update: 23.01.2017

The workgroup Tools studies the characteristics and constructive design of forming tools inside the SFB/TR 73. Within the cooperation of all projects, new invented ideas and technologies for sheet bulk metal forming can be tested and realized. One focus of the workgroup is the investigation of tool surfaces (Tailored Surfaces) to manipulate the friction inside the tool.

Investigations are made by using a developed test forming tool together with an universal press (Figure 1). The modular installation setup enables fast realization and testing. Thus structured surface areas and coating techniques can be evaluated to analyze the influence of the tribological characteristics and therefore the filling of cavities.

Figure 1

 Bild 1: Testtool a) Overview, b) Die.

For a systematic analysis of the tribological characteristics of tool surfaces, an adapted ring compression test was developed for the sheet bulk metal forming process (Figure 2). Within these tests, Tailored Surfaces can be analyzed under reproducible conditions. A main difference to a conventional ring compression test is the form of the specimen, which is optimized in regard to a more simplified  manufacturing process of the rings, and the sensitivity of the test. To perform the tests, the tools can be utilized by standard universal test machines which are available in all locations of the SFB/TR73.



Bild 2: Ring compression tool adapted for BMU for analysis of tribological characteristics of Tailored Surfaces.

Besides the tribological behavior of surfaces, wear tests with different surface structures and coating techniques were carried out . In preliminary investigations, different surfaces were tested on a high speed press. All surfaces were punched 1mm deep into DC04 and measured in regular time steps until 1000 strokes were done. At 200 strokes a slight smoothing of the roughness peaks could be detected, while after 200 strokes the surfaces seemed to reach a steady state (Figure 3).



Bild 3:  Confocal light pictures with profile sections regarding to different strokes.

For the next project phase the working group Tools will develop a wear test suited for sheet bulk metal forming across all locations.




Head of Working Group




      • Gröbel, D.; Schulte, R.; Hildenbrand, P.; Lechner, M.; Engel, U.; Sieczkarek, P.; Wernicke, S.; , .; Tekkaya, A.; Behrens, B.; Hübner, S.; Vucetic, M.; Koch, S.; Merklein, M.: Manufacturing of functional elements by sheet-bulk metal forming processes. In: Production Engineering, 10(2016)1, pp. 63-80
      • Gröbel, D.; Merklein, M.; Sieczkarek, P.; Wernicke, S.; Tekkaya, A.; Krebs, E.; Freiburg, D.; Biermann, D.; Weikert, T.; Tremmel, S.; Stangier, D.; Tillmann, W.; Matthias, S.; Reithmeier, E.; Löffler, M.; Beyer, F.; Willner, K.: Experimental and numcerial analysis of tribological effective surfaces for forming tools in Sheet-Bulk Metal Forming. In: Production Engineering, 10(2016)1, Springer, pp. 37-50
      • Beyer, F.; Löffler, M.; Willner, K.; Engel, U.; Merklein, M.: Enhancement of a Constitutive Friction Law by Considering Plastic Smoothing of Rough Surfaces in Dependency on the Bulk Stresses. In: Tribology in Industry, 38(2016)2, pp. 163-175
      • Berthelsen, R.; Wilbuer, H.; Holtermann, R.; Menzel, A.: Computational modelling of wear - application to structured surfaces of elastoplastic tools. In: GAMM-Mitteilungen, 39(2016)2, pp. 210-228


      • Krebs, E.; Odendahl, S.; Simone Carmignato; Filippo Zanini; Tobias Siebrecht: Analysing machining errors resulting from a micromilling process using CT measurement and process simulation. In: 4M/ICOMM15 Annoni, A.; Fassi, I.; Wiens, G.J; Dimov, S. (Hrsg.) (Edt.): Proceedings of the 4M/ICOMM2015 Conference, (2015), pp. 137-140
      • Löffler, M.; Gröbel, D.; Andreas, K.; Engel, U.; Merklein, M.: Analysis of Effectivness of Locally Adapted Tribological Conditions for Improving Product Quality in Sheet-Bulk Metal Forming. In: Applied Mechnics and Materials, 794(2015), pp. 81-88
      • Freiburg, D.; Biermann, D.; Hense, R.; Tillmann, W.; Stangier, D.: Influence of Surface Modifications on Friction, Using High-Feed Milling and Wear Resistant PVD-Coating for Sheet-Metal Forming Tools. In: Key Engineering Materials, 639(2015), pp. 275-282
      • Hense, R.; Vierzigmann, U.; Löffler, M.; Biermann, D.; Merklein, M.; Wels, C.: High-Feed Milling of Tailored Surfaces for Sheet-Bulk Metal Forming Tools. In: Production Engineering, 9(2015)2, pp. 215-223
      • Landkammer, P.; Loderer, A.; Krebs, E.; Söhngen, B.; Steinmann, P.; Hausotte, T.; Biermann, D.; Willner, K.: Experimental verification of a benchmark forming simulation. In: Key Engineering Materials, 639(2015), pp. 251-258
      • Lucas, H.; Denkena, B.; Grove, T.; Krebs, E.; Freiburg, D.; Biermann, D.: Analysis of Residual Stress States of Structured Surfaces Manufactured by High-Feed and Micromilling. In: HTM Journal of Heat Treatment and Materials, 70(2015)4, pp. 183-189
      • Freiburg, D.; Hense, R.; Biermann, D.: Determination of Force Parameters for Milling Simulations by Combining Optimization and Simulation Techniques. In: J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 138(2015)4, pp. 6


      • Schneider, T.; Vierzigmann, U.; Merklein, M.: Analysis of Varying Properties of Semi-finished Products in Sheet-bulk Metal Forming of Functional Components. In: J. W. Yoon, T. B. Stoughton, B. Rolfe, J. H. Beynon, P. Hodgson (Edt.): NUMISHEET 2014: The 9th International Conference and Workshop on Numerical Simulation of 3D Sheet Metal Forming Processes, (2014), pp. 930-933
      • Gröbel, D.; Koch, J.; Vierzigmann, U.; Engel, U.; Merklein, M.: Investigations and approaches on material flow of non-uniform arranged cavities in sheet bulk metal forming processes. In: Procedia Engineering, 81(2014), pp. 401-406
      • Krebs, E.; Baumann, J.; Joliet, R.; Odendahl, S.; Rausch, S.; Schweinoch, M.; Siebrecht, T.: Potentiale geometrisch-physikalischer Prozesssimulationen zur Modellierung und Optimierung spanender Fertigungsverfahren. In: Begleitband zum Fertigungstechnischen Kolloquium Magdeburg – Moderne Fertigungstechnologien zur Steigerung von Leistung, Qualität und Effizienz, (2014), pp. 4: 1 - 12
      • Loderer, A.; Hausotte, T.; Steinmann, P.; Merklein, M.; Landkammer, P.; Schneider, T.; Hildenbrand, P.: Development of a feature adapted measurement evaluation strategy. In: PTB open access repository (Edt.): MacroScale 2014 - Recent developments in traceable dimensional measurements, 10.7795/810.20150325P, (2014), Wien, pp. 1-13


      • Hense, R.: Using Chatter Vibrations in Milling to Create Tribo-Functional Surfaces for Sheet-Bulk Metal Forming Tools. In: Advanced Materials Research, 769(2013), pp. 263-270
      • Salfeld, V.; Krimm, R.; Hübner, S.; Vucetic, M.: Sheet-Bulk Metal Forming of Symmetric and Asymmetric Parts. In: Advanced Materials Research, 769(2013), Switzerland: Trans Tech Publication, pp. 229-236
      • Vierzigmann, U.; Schneider, T.; Koch, J.; Merklein, M.; Engel, U.; Hense, R.; Biermann, D.; Krebs, E.; Lucas, H.; Denkena, B.; Herper, J.; Tillmann, W.; Stangier, D.: Untersuchungen von Tailored Surfaces für die Blechmassivumformung mittels angepasstem Ringstauchversuch. In: Merklein, M.; Behrens, B. A., Tekkaya, A. E. (Edt.): 2. Workshop Blechmassivumformung, (2013), Bamberg: Meisenbach, pp. 137-162
      • Odendahl, S.: Higher Efficiency Modeling of Surface Location Errors by Using a Multi-scale Milling Simulation 9(2013), Procedia CIRP, pp. 18-22
      • Biermann, D.; Krebs, E.; Steiner M.: Investigation of Different Hard Coatings for Micromilling of Austenitic Stainless Steel. In: Procedia CIRP, 7(2013), pp. 246-251
      • Krebs, E.: Mikrofräsen von funktionalen Oberflächenstrukturen in hochharten Arbeitsstählen. In: Biermann, D. (Hrsg.) (Edt.): Begleitband zum Fachgespräch zwischen Industrie und Hochschule „Zerspanen im modernen Produktionsprozess“, (2013), pp. 189-199



        • 08.03.2016: Krebs, E.; Biermann, D.: Aktuelle Entwicklungen um Zerspanprozesse auf Hochleistungswerkstoffe einzustellen, Nürtingen


        • 24.06.2014: Biermann, D.; Krebs, E.; , .: Laserunterstütztes Mikrotiefbohren und Mikrofräsen zur Strukturierung von Oberflächen, 11. MST-Regionalkonferenz Dortmund
        • 15.07.2014: , .: Simulating Machining Processes Using Geometrical and Physically Based Models, CIRP RA Workshop, Gjovik, Norwegen
        • 28.08.2014: , .: Separation of Process and Machine Influences in Micro Milling – Experiments, Simulation and Metrology, CIRP General Meeting, CWG on Micro-Production Engineering, Nantes, Frankreich


        • 24.07.2013: Hense, R.: Erzeugung tribologisch wirksamer Oberflächen für Umformwerkzeuge der Blechmassivumformung durch regenerative Werkzeugschwingungen beim Fräsen, Erlangen
        • 11.09.2013: Krebs, E.: Mikrofräsen funktionaler Oberflächenstrukturen in hochharten Arbeitsstählen, Dortmund
        • 13.11.2013: Koch, J.: Untersuchung von Tailored Surfaces für die Blechmassivumformung mittels angepasstem Ringstauchversuch, Erlangen
        • 13.11.2013: Breitsprecher, T.: Vortrag bearbeiten: Sensitivitätsanalyse der tribologischen Eigenschaften gefräster Oberflächenstrukturen bei der Blechmassivumformung, Erlangen